The submarine rises again
by Paul Andreas
Home at last, one might say. After many years of guest appearances in various Rotterdam cultural institutions, the seventh edition of the International Architecture Biennale Rotterdam (IABR) has arrived at its natural thematic location: The former Fenix coffee warehouse is an interim location characterized by coarse industrial-grade concrete, with a future that remains at least partially uncertain. Furthermore, with its large, open halls and its location in the heart of the new hipster district of Katendrecht, the warehouse is a hotspot of gentrification. Nearly three years ago this former port and red-light district with its already far above-average migrant population was joined up to the showpiece of Rotterdam’s urban development, the Wilhelminapier.
Now, for its part, years after this physical link was put in place, the IABR is attempting to build a psychological bridge between the two areas as well as between the old and new residents. Many of the different discussion formats and workshops are designed explicitly to include not only an expert audience but also those in the neighborhood, while city tours provide an opportunity to explore the niche areas and micro-economies of Katendrecht together.
Unlike the Architecture Biennale in Venice, for example which, in spite of its noticeable thematic fine-tuning over the last few years, remains a matter of changing presentations, the IABR sees itself as a permanent “glocal think-tank”: The invited international specialists are ultimately supposed to bring their expertise to help tackle local and regional spatial problems, going beyond established planning routines. Or, to use the metaphor of long-term Biennale Director George Brugman: The IABR acts like a submarine, it generally remains hidden, but every two years it surfaces in order to present interim results in the form of inspiration, planning strategies and spatial tactics.
The next economy must be an urban one
The question raised by the political theorist, who for a long time worked as an urban policy consultant for the Dutch government and now works primarily as a university lecturer in Urban Futures in Utrecht, is initially oriented more towards economic policy than architecture: What new model could follow the fossil-based “old” and the neo-liberal “new” economy? Given rapid global urbanization, this “Next Economy” must inevitably be primarily urban, as well as economically lively, post-fossil smart and, most importantly, socially integrative. Hajer, who has included an exhibition section which offers an ironically exaggerated look through smart glasses, is never at a loss for a swipe at the lovers and manufacturers of smart technologies: Google, Facebook, Apple & Co. can work diligently on their images of the future, but so far these remain merely images of a premium society, in which lurk the trap of systematically not being able to see outside the box.
A Crystal Palace for Rotterdam
When it comes to truly cyclical economies and more intense spatial networking of production, innovation and consumption, excessively regulated Europe could learn a thing or two from Asia and Africa. Anyone asking themselves where the worn-out cars from Europe end up should take a look at Ghana’s second-biggest city, Kumasi. In a large area that formerly served as a weapons store for the British army, old vehicles are repaired or new ones cannibalized from old parts for the African market in a buzzing agglomeration of open-air workshops, factories and shops – the perfect example of an informally organized circular economy – nothing gets lost. On the neighboring table, “Island”, there is also a focus on urbanization in Africa, and how this gives rise to both small tactical projects as well as large-scale endeavors with global capital. Pioneer network projects like the cooperative-based photovoltaic network Ishack in South Africa stand alongside a 44-gigawatt dam project in the Congo or the recently launched Noor solar farm in Morocco. Yet the exhibition does not draw conclusions on what, ultimately, is actually smarter or more socially inclusive.
More city from the bottom up
International Architecture Biennale Rotterdam
Focus on the virtual: In the main exhibition on “The Next Economy” so-called smart technologies are explored with an ironic touch. Photo © Hans Tak, IABR
An upturn in the fortunes of Katendrecht, a migrant district: The Biennale is mainly sited in a former coffee warehouse south of the Maas River. Photo © Kim Bouvy, IABR
Major issues are tackled jointly: At the Biennale international experts set out to help solve local problems. Campaign image © IABR
An archipelago of tables: Just short of 60 projects are on show, chosen from 283 entries from 35 different countries. Photo © Hans Tak, IABR
You could easily lie on the table: The MDF tops are strong enough to enable visitors to lie on them and study a projection on the ceiling. Photo © Hans Tak, IABR
Upgrading and informal settlement in Stellenbosch nr. Cape Town using solar cells: Countless projects from Africa and Asia are on show. Photo © Megan King
One of the most important projects: Urban development in Buiksloterham in Amsterdam, where the old wharves have been given a new lease of life. Photo © Stadslab Buiksloterham
Table it all: an archipelago of large working tops – the main Biennale exhibition was designed by Brussels-based architects 51N4E. Photo © Lotte Stekelenburg, IABR